Saturday, August 22, 2020

A Comparative Consumer Behaviour of Audi, BMW and Mercedes in Thailand Essay

A Comparative Consumer Behavior of Audi, BMW and Mercedes in Thailand and UK - Essay Example Research shows that ?21.1 billion UK car showcase is in steady clash with France and Italy (Done, 57). This makes it the second greatest European nation in the car showcase after Germany. The African mainland additionally has various states that are appraised among this exchanging extravagance vehicles, drove by South Africa. Be that as it may, confinements in deals depend on the complete business zone or by nearby market circumstances, notwithstanding client inclination. In that capacity, the general flourishing vehicle showcase is experiencing social change with extravagance brands showing up less crude, not so much different but rather more exhaustive with the condition improving. Along these lines, there is expanded rivalry between various vehicle brands coming about into brand personality. Because of nonstop improvement in the vehicle items, the outward look of a car assumes a huge job in affecting the consumers’ choices. Premium marquees like BMW, Lexus and Mercedes-Benz ought to create characteristics and qualities that show changing social traits, which influence customers mentally, with the goal that they hold their gainfulness in the car business. This paper will take a gander at customer conduct contrasts among Thailand and the UK, thinking about three brands of vehicles (BMW, Audi, and Mercedes Benz). Technique What we Did For reasons for characterizing clients’ affectability towards extravagance autos, a lot of thoughts factors that potential shoppers of riches vehicles may require was created with consent from vehicle vendors (Audi, Jaguar, Mercedes, Lexus and Volvo). This was done at London Motor show ’97 at Earl’s Court Exhibition. All things considered, various factors were built up including unwavering quality, quality, toughness, safety,... A Comparative Consumer Behavior of Audi, BMW and Mercedes in Thailand and UK All things considered, the general success vehicle showcase is experiencing social change with extravagance brands showing up less crude, not so much different but rather more far reaching with the condition improving. Along these lines, there is expanded rivalry between various vehicle brands coming about into brand character. Because of constant improvement in the vehicle items, the outward look of a car assumes a critical job in impacting the consumers’ choices. Premium marquees like BMW, Lexus and Mercedes-Benz ought to create characteristics and qualities that show changing social properties, which influence customers mentally, so they hold their productivity in the car business. This paper will take a gander at purchaser conduct contrasts among Thailand and the UK, thinking about three brands of vehicles. For reasons for characterizing clients’ affectability towards extravagance autos, a lot of thoughts factors that potential buyers of riches vehicles may require was created with authorization from vehicle vendors. This was done at London Motor show ’97 at Earl’s Court Exhibition. All things considered, various factors were set up including unwavering quality, quality, solidness, wellbeing, security, execution, effectiveness, innovation, and taking care of among different factors. These factors were done inside the goal classification. Be that as it may, factors like worth, style, comfort, glory, picture and visual effect were done on the fundamental model of subjectivity.

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

Great Books For The Writer In Your Life

Great Books For The Writer In Your Life Back in September, I went back to university to study creative writing. After decades of reading and a general sense that I should, at some point, follow the dreams that my four year old self envisioned, I figured that maybe it was finally time to give it a proper go. I’ve been writing for publication since I was 16 years old. Magazines. Newspapers. Book chapters. Blogs. You name it, I’ve written in. But I’ve never finished a draft of a book. I’m working on it actively and it’s the best part of my week when I get to sit down and write, but even a year ago I would have been too scared to even try. A lot of what keeps me going are books about writing. I doubt myself constantly (I think we all do) and there are days when I just haven’t a clue what I’m meant to do next (also a universal experience, I believe). So below is a list of some great books to give to a writer in your life- or maybe treat yourself and pop them on your bookshelf. They might get you through a tight spot! Scratch by Manjula Martin For anyone seeking to follow a dream in the writing world, this one is a necessary. The book is a series of essays from acclaimed authors talking about writing, money and how to make a living from the pen. There’s a lot of candid conversation about money, publishing, teaching and learning. It’s full of honesty and is surprisingly inspirational. A Poetry Handbook by Mary Oliver I’ve been reading poems since I was a small child (my father loves poetry and often made me read them), but every time I sat down to write one I panicked. Then I read Mary Oliver’s book (and later, her poetry, which is super but I shan’t digress) and I found myself suddenly able to conceptualise an actual poem and work on it, start to finish. This is a must for anyone who wants to learn how to write poems (and is weirdly interesting even if you never plan to write them at all). The Writer’s Reader  edited by Robert Cohen and Jay Parini In the vein of Scratch, this is a series of essays by authors modern and historical and considers writing as a vocation as well as a craft. There is work here from Flannery O Connor, Virginia Woolf, Zadie Smith and Colm Toibin. It’s really lovely to sit down with this, pick a random entry and dig deep. This Year You Write Your Novel  by Walter Mosley Walter Mosley is no-nonsense and here to guide you through the process of getting your first novel written. It’s instructive as well as encouraging and helps a wannabe writer make a timetable (and stick to it, a thing I struggle with), as well as finding your style and getting into the proper meat (and not just the first chapter). The Writing Life: Writers on How They Think and Work  by Marie Arana Marie Arana presents a biography of each of the writers who contribute to this collection of essays about a writing life. The essays cover how writers work, how they found they wanted to write in the first place, and how they struggle and triumph in the process of penning. The biographies really add something to this, and you find yourself on the outside, looking in at people who are considering some very large questions about their craft. Making a Literary Life  by Carolyn See This is about teaching writing, but also about following a dream and living the life you want to. There’s lots of humour here alongside the tips about writing and guidelines about publication, and the pages are chock full of positivity. Making a Literary Life is all about inspiration and makes for a truly lovely read. How to Write an Autobiographical Novel  by Alexander Chee Shamefully, I haven’t read this, but it’s on my list and getting close to the top. It comes highly recommended by several Rioters and I cannot wait to get stuck in. This was all over TIME, the Washington Post and Bustle last year. This is Chee’s first non fiction effort, a series of essays about the knotty mix of life and writing, referring to his own experiences and his identity as a Korean American. Sign up for True Story to receive nonfiction news, new releases, and must-read forthcoming titles. Thank you for signing up! Keep an eye on your inbox.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The End Of The Civil War - 1577 Words

After the end of the Civil War, the most challenging, and equally important task for the federal government of the US was to reconstruct the defeated South and establish equality for the African Americans. A highly debated and crucial topic in this time period was the rights of the free black men to vote. â€Å"The goal of Reconstruction was to readmit the South on terms that were acceptable to the North –full political and civil equality for blacks and a denial of the political rights of whites who were the leaders of the secession movement† (â€Å"Reconstruction†). The Republican party was segregated due to different opinions regarding black civil rights into the anti-slavery Congressmen, known as Radicals; and President Lincoln, succeeded by President Johnson. There were several amendments made to the Constitution and the Federal Legislation. One of the most important documents in the history of the US was the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared the freedom of all slaves in all the states. However, it did not end slavery in the nation. â€Å"President Lincoln recognized that the Emancipation Proclamation would have to be followed by a constitutional amendment in order to guarantee the abolishment of slavery† (â€Å"Thirteenth†). For the accomplishment of this task, the 13th amendment was passed in 1865, which prevented the South from reestablishing the slavery after the end of the war. It was one of the three Civil War amendments, that led to the full emancipation of slaves, and hadShow MoreRelatedThe End Of The Civil War796 Words   |  4 Pagesgave up the Confederate’s capital of Richmond. (Farmer, 2016) This has been marked throughout history as the end of the Civil War. The war was over before it ever began. Not to make this sound all one sided, meaning that the Union had all the advantag es. The Confederate Army had many of their own advantages. The South was made up of 750,000 square miles, which held most of the Army’s War Colleges. Southern gentleman made for better Soldiers as a results of them being all farmers, hunters, andRead MoreThe End Of The Civil War792 Words   |  4 PagesWhen Henry Woodfin Grady gave his speech in December of 1886 it had been right around twenty years since the end of the Civil War. The Civil War was the deadliest war in American history and happened due to the clear split in lifestyle and values between the North and the South. Grady compares the North and the South to the Puritans and Cavaliers. These two groups of people had completely different lifestyles and values. He acknowledges that the two groups eventually had to come together just likeRead MoreThe End Of The Civil War1073 Words   |  5 PagesFrederick Douglass once said â€Å"What a change now greets us! The Government is aroused, the dead North is alive, and its divided people united†¦The cry now is for war, vigorous war, war to the bitter end, and war till the traitors are effectually and permanently put down† (Allen, 2005). In 1861, the start of the Civil War was needed by the Confederacy and the Union. Ever since the American Revolution and the birth of the United States, seventy-eight years earlier, there were many disagreements thatRead MoreThe End Of The Civil War1568 Words   |  7 PagesThere were many factors that contributed to the beginning of the Civil War. Socially, the North and South were built on very different standards. The North was known as the â€Å"free-states† in which they had more immigrants settling in its boundaries. In the North labor was very much needed, within this time it is important to understand that in terms of labor, labor of slaves was not needed. Not in that way. Therefore, the North was made up of a more industrialized society where most people workedRead MoreThe End Of The Civ il War Essay1090 Words   |  5 PagesMr. Lara/Mr. Doyle Dec 7 2016 Fords Theatre The end of the civil war was drawing near, and Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America was looking forward to the reconstruction of his country. He went out for a play at Fords Theatre. While enjoying the play he was shot in the back by an assassin . This assination changed the future of America, and affects us today. At the end of the Civil War there were very different plans for reconstructing the nation wereRead MoreThe End Of The Civil War1487 Words   |  6 PagesAfter the American Civil War, African Americans believed that their lives would improve. The Union had won the war, and the United States was whole again. There was hope, and above all, they were finally free. Even things were changing inside the government. Before the Civil War ended, Abraham Lincoln realized the states needed to have government officials loyal to the Unionist cause if the war was to end. So, after encouraging Arkansas to ratify a new state constitution in 1864, Arkansas citizensRead MoreThe End Of The Civil War1228 Words   |  5 PagesAfter the Civil War, the fact that slavery was abolished might seem to be the end of the story; however, the problems derived from the abolishment of slavery had yet to be addressed. During the Reconstruction Era, these problems were reflected on the political, soci al, and economic aspects. Which played several major roles in shaping America from the late nineteenth into the twentieth centuries.These three aspects, political, social, and economical, affected one another so much that they were inseparableRead MoreThe End Of The Civil War1446 Words   |  6 PagesThe Civil War, fought from 1861 thru 1865, not only divided the nation into north and south but also became the bloodiest war in American history with over 600,000 casualties. Furthermore, ties between the already unpopular President Abraham Lincoln and congress, to include majority of his cabinet, broke making it ever more evident the discontent of the political body with the decisions the president would make in the months leading to the end of the war. As the war came to an end and the roadRead MoreThe End Of The Civil War1432 Words   |  6 PagesFollowing the Civil War, the Government acquired the task of reassembling the country in a way that would not destroy the peace that h ad come since the war’s end. Reconstruction centered around striking a balance between the rights of African Americans and white Southerners in order to create a sense of equality in America. Before his untimely death in 1865, Lincoln had begun the task of putting the country back together with the 10% plan. He aimed to pardon every southern Confederate, and readmitRead MoreThe End Of The Civil War1807 Words   |  8 Pages The end of the Civil War should have signified the end of slavery as well; however, this was far from the truth. President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation referred to only slaves within the southern states (Byng). African Americans found themselves no longer bound to their plantation homes, but they also found themselves without the means or rights needed to make new lives. Many of the attitudes and discriminatory practices present prior to the Civil War were still in effect and continued

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Effective Use Of Employee Voice And An Increase Of...

EFFECTIVE USE OF MANAGERS’ ENCOURAGEMET OF EMPLOYEE VOICE CAN LEAD TO A LIFT IN WELL-BEING AND PRODUCTIVITY. Managers’ encouragement of employee voice can result in an overall increase of productivity and well-being. First of all, a fundamental term which must be understood is the definition of ‘Employee voice (EV)’. Wilkinson and Fay (2011) summarise ‘voice’ as how much say an employee has in regard to decision making in the workplace. Furthermore, in this essay a range of arguments will be developed in order to determine whether or not managers’ encouragement of EV can lead to an increase of productivity and well-being. In particular, this essay will focus mostly on how managers utilise EV and how it contributes to overall well-being†¦show more content†¦In circumstances where employees’ feel as if they cannot express opinions, criticism and suggestions, it is commonly due to the expected outcome with the manager (Detert Burris, 2007). Furthermore, if there were to be an issue within the organisation which effected the employee, the employee has one of two options; leave the workplace or express their opinions (Detert Burris, 2007, p.872). As a result, if EV is not encouraged by a manager it can lead to employees’ feeling discouraged to express their opinions, overall reducing wellbeing and psychological security within that organisation (Detert Burris, 2007). Detert and Burris (2007) suggests that employees, â€Å"lack the courage to†¦ challenge mangers who have signalled unwillingness to accept input† (Detert Burris, 2007, p.872). Furthermore, it can be concluded that due to unwelcoming use of EV, employee’s well-being (confidence within the workplace) is drastically reduced. Walumbwa and Schaubroeck (2009) explains that when mangers’ openly accept and encourage employees to speak their mind, psychological safety and wellbeing increase, allowing employees to express their ideas, concerns and conflicts. More so, while the

Economic Migration A Threat or a Blessing to Developed Countries Free Essays

INTRODUCTION TO GLOBALISTION Individual Report To what extent is economic migration a threat or a blessing to developed countries? In general, the primary human right is life and to lead this life wherever desirable, where it is possible to live the most freely, easily and in complete security. In order to do this, people move across the world, voluntarily or forcibly, in the search for this new place. Migration is the movement of people from one place in the world to another, due to vital reasons for a better quality of life: political reasons and economic reasons. We will write a custom essay sample on Economic Migration: A Threat or a Blessing to Developed Countries? or any similar topic only for you Order Now We know certainly two basic trends that are the base for migration. The first is Global Population growth and the second is the global shift in employment. The first one is referring to the global population, which has deep roots in the past and is concern with the problem of birth and death occurring each day. It is estimate that the world population is continuing to increase starting from the year 1950, when it was just 3 billion people in the world and nowadays, in 2007, when it is 6 billion citizenry- according with the statistics realised by the Census Bureau. The second trend is related to the economic reasons and we will focus on them, being the principal theme for this report. Economic migration results from economic activities that result in the movement of persons from one country to another for entrepreneurial, industrial, professional, labour market or commercial motives. In an era of globalization, economic or labour migration is on the rise. Due to lack of employment opportunities in developing countries and increased demands for low-wage workers in developed countries, youth, women and men are pursuing work in other countries in order to support themselves and their families back home. Recent statistics demonstrate that there are around 200 million persons per year who migrate throughout the world. The International Organization for Migration estimates that there are 80 million economic migrants worldwide. These migrations are most often from poor countries to rich countries rather than the reverse. The principal places attracting migrants are the petroleum producing Persian Gulf countries, the United States and the European Union. It is not confined to poor countries – inhabitants of rich countries also migrate for economic reasons to other countries. Traditionally and historically, the USA has been hotspot of economic migrants since it is seen as the ‘land of opportunity’. Thousands of people from all across the world, including Britain, try to move to the USA for a better life. For example a lecturer at an Ivy League University still earns more than someone at a top university in the UK. Many economic migrants to the USA come from Latin America and the Caribbean. About 150,000 Mexicans enter illegally each year, resulting in 3 to 4 million illegal Mexicans in the USA. They arrive in dangerous conditions such as hidden in the backs of lorries under legal produce. The chart below shows the projected U. S. population growth if immigration and fertility remain similar to today’s rates. [pic] But is economic migration a threat or a blessing to developed countries? A threat is any activity whose appearance is likely to break the social equilibrium and peace in a part of the world. Growing immigration into the rich countries whether voluntary, forced, regular or clandestine tends to be built up into a bubbling volcano that can become active at the least pressure from the lava. It can give rise to three types of threats. On the security level, the influx of migrants can be a source of recruits for a possible terrorist network, on the one hand. On the other hand, neglected immigrants, without means of subsistence, can form networks of criminals; can be contributors to urban insecurity and creators of communities favorable to possible terrorist recruitment efforts. On the economic level, immigrants can be a significant reservoir for the recruitment of cheap labour to the detriment of citizens. That can result in an increase in the unemployment rate for the latter, which becomes a concern for governments. Providing assistance for the immigrants can have an influence on public budgets and contribute to the erosion of the purchasing power of citizens. That could, in the long run, create frustrations among citizens and result in acts of violent discrimination with regrettable consequences. On the socio-cultural level, the struggle for reciprocal influence between immigrant cultures and local cultures could give rise to a national identity conflict through several mechanisms. Immigrants who are victims of discrimination, social injustices and other tension-creating acts, could use violence to demand their rights. Various illicit forms of trafficking, particularly the trafficking of human beings through migration, are also threats arising from migration. ECONOMIC MIGRATION DAMAGES the IMMIGRANT’S HOME COUNTRY To argue that Britain needs economic migrants because of their alleged energy, talent and skills, is to ignore the flip side of that coin which is that the country they came from is going to be deprived of their energy, talent and skills. Every economic migrant who comes here is depriving his or her country of their ability, and is prolonging their own country’s agony. It is irresponsible and immoral to deprive countries in this way. Economic migration on these terms is a form of piracy, which should be outlawed! Morally speaking, developed countries should not encourage a brain drain from the developing world, especially not of those who have been described as hard working, educated and entrepreneurial. Immigration’s needed to explain why they advocate the economic piracy and brain draining of the developing world. They need to explain why they advocate a policy guaranteed to keep the developing world in poverty. The people who promote open borders and migration, either as an imagined â€Å"solution† to global economic injustice, or population pressure, or because they want to effect demographic change in the Western world, are in the wrong. Here are some of their frequently heard myths: â€Å"We need economic migrants to keep the Health Service going† The only reason nurses from Asia are being imported is because we do not, and won’t, pay a living wage to nurses from this country. This is a new form of 21st century slavery. Britain abolished the Atlantic slave trade. Let’s not start a new version. Why are we importing teachers when we have teachers on the dole? It is not because we have a shortage of labour. It is because we have a shortage of people willing to do these jobs at the low wages offered. â€Å"Many companies could not survive without immigrants† So what? If the companies are only employing immigrants then what goods are they doing for anyone other than immigrants? â€Å"Immigrants do the work we would not do† This is not necessarily true. Are we to believe that without any immigrants we would have no cafes, no waiters, and no cleaners? Off course not. The only reason immigrants are doing these jobs is because they don’t pay well enough for indigenous people to accept them. Relying on immigrants to do this work is a form of slavery. Instituting a modern form of slavery is immoral. It is not a sign of a progressive society. It is certainly not something of which we should be proud. Instead, it is morally right to do our own drudgery work. â€Å"Many economic migrants are highly skilled and have a lot to offer† Again, this demonstrates the extent to which their home countries are missing out on their talent and skills. If a talented person flees his or her homeland then they become part of their home country’s problem, not part of the solution. â€Å"Immigrants create jobs. Look at Marks and Spencer, for example† Simply because a tiny handful of past immigrants went on to found high street chain stores, does not mean that all immigrants are potentially able to do this, will do this, or that it is something only immigrants can do. If there is a genuine need for more shops and businesses then that need will be met, without the help of immigrants. Secondly, because something happened in the past does not mean it will happen again. And thirdly, in the past, levels of immigration were much lower and there were periods of almost zero immigration, where new immigrants had the time to settle and assimilate into society. â€Å"When economic migrants are forced to enter illegally, they become prey to criminal traffickers, and so the answer is to make it easier for them to apply for entry legally† Are we to believe that all illegal immigrants, many of whom do not even speak English, would be granted admission if they applied legally? So long as there are any kinds of border controls whatsoever, then there will always be people attempting to enter Britain illegally. That is because such people simply have no skills to offer legally. If we really wanted to cut out criminal traffickers then we would simply open the doors wide so everybody could enter in ease, and that is the inevitable logic of this kind of thinking. That would be the irresponsible and immoral act of a government, which had abdicated any concern for the political, social, cultural, environmental and quality of life consequences of its policies. There is a lot of disadvantages of economic migration to developed countries but is there any benefits of this? Yes is the simple answer and the benefits are many. Immigration Minister Liam Byrne said it was important to â€Å"strike a new balance† in immigration policy. â€Å"That means looking at the wider benefits to the developed countries economy on the one hand, but it means we have to take into account the wider impact on these countries public services and life as well. We need to weigh both things up before we take big decisions on immigration. † â€Å"It is clear that migration brings huge economic benefits to the developed countries such as United Kingdom or United States of America. † for BBC news said Dr Sriskandarajah. Low jobless rates in Ireland, Sweden, Britain, America and other developed countries with high migration suggest that, so far, foreigners are not squeezing out natives. Migrants also help to create jobs, because a good supply of labour encourages those with capital to invest more. Also, foreign workers are often more flexible than native ones, too. Having already moved from Mexico to New York, lets say, they are probably willing to take a job in Washington. Migrant labour helps to keep economies on an even keel. And they are consumers, too, renting accommodation and buying goods and services. His Polish customers, who are fond of Smirnoff vodka and east European lager, delight the owner of the off-licence for example in Holloway road. Holloway supermarkets, fast-food restaurants and other shops are flourishing too. Business benefits- price/wage growth is likely to slow or fall back, protected by the minimum wage, as a new supply of working age migrants boost the Scottish economy. This provides clear business benefits and helps explain the CBI’s support for managed immigration to support business growth. A shortage of workers can stifle growth and lead to wage inflation reducing the competitiveness of Scottish made goods. There is a popular myth is that economic migrants come here and steal ‘our jobs’. There is no fixed supply of jobs, indeed more workers in the economy fuel more jobs. So attracting new labour into work will actually create jobs rather than reduce them. Indeed many sectors struggle to fill vacancies leading to skill shortages both within essential public services and in the private sector. To conclude, like in every phenomenon there are blessings and threats to others. But the 21st century phenomenon of economic migration is a reality that openly threatens peace in the world. States and the international community together should integrate this question into their political strategies in order to find ways and means likely to give rise to a better socioeconomic and security balance among people. Word count (excluding bibliography)- 1996 words BIBLIOGRAPHY Newspapers: ? The Economist print edition- ‘Migration’, May 10th 2001 ? The Economist print edition- ‘of bed sheets and bison grass vodka’, Jan 3rd, 2008 Web pages and TV: ? http://issues. takingitglobal. org ? http://www. globalfootprints. org/issues ? www. migrationwatchuk. org ? http://www. northlan. ov. uk/business+and+employment/local+economy/economic+inf ormation/ ? Colonel Kaumbu Yankole Army / Democratic Republic of the Congo- ‘is migration a threat? ’ ? Bbc news- Migration ’causes pressure in UK’. Wednesday, 17 October 2007 ? http://www. economist. com/finance/displaystory. cfm? story_id=E1_NGDRDTJ Books: ? Suman Gupta and Tope Omoniyi- The cu ltures of economic migration: international perspectives, 2007 ? Bjorn Lomborg- Solutions for the world’s biggest problems: costs and benefits ? Stephen Glover- Migration: an economic and social analysis, c2001 How to cite Economic Migration: A Threat or a Blessing to Developed Countries?, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

The Role of Culture in International Marketing

Introduction Culture of a given market represents the way different people in such a market behave and carry out their daily endeavours. In a black box perspective, culture is a representation of a population’s way of life. Markedly, cultures vary from state to state and community to community.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on The Role of Culture in International Marketing specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Whites, Blacks, Arabs, Hispanics, and other divisive groups exhibit different cultures. Values, norms, traditions, customs, and beliefs represent some of the elements exhibiting cultural differences. Businesses require utmost care in developing adequate understanding of the impacts of culture on consumer behaviours. Developing an intricate understanding of the different types of cultures that exist across the globe enables business franchises to create ample marketing systems that improve the rate of sales. In understanding the cultural setup in a market, businesses require analysis of key elements that inform cultural practices within a given market. Developing products and services becomes irrelevant without proper marketing strategies. Therefore, implementing these strategies in the global market require putting into consideration consumer differences in terms of values, beliefs, thought processes, and traditions (Cateora and Graham 2007, p. 35). Equally, different cultures appreciate different languages, religions, and symbols. Understanding all these facets within the confines of a marketing strategy enables business entities to win the hearts of many consumers, thereby improving the chances of higher profit margins. This paper seeks to explore the different elements in culture that inform marketing strategy in local and international business franchise. Similarly, the paper seeks to understand the role of consumer culture in marketing and effects of culture on advertis ement. Dimensions of Culture As Czinkota and Ronkainen (2007, p. 128) demote, many scholars argue that individuals develop cultures from interaction with different characters within a society. Characters, behaviours, traits, and customs within which an individual duels create a systematic and predicable way of life congruent to the interactive elements.Advertising Looking for coursework on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the development and conformity into a given culture, different individuals begin to develop tastes and preferences for different products and services (Byrd and Megginson 2013, p. 44). Most cultural groups stick to their behaviours and customs since developing a contrary way of life creates animosity within the society. For this reason, several cultures remain reluctant in embracing foreign ways of life, hence creating serious hurdles for international business franchises seeking pene tration in a new market. According to Hofsede (2001, p. 73), for business franchise to develop an adequate understanding of the cultural structures for successful market penetration, understanding the different cultural dimensions within such markets becomes compulsory. Individualism versus collectivism Individualism draws inspiration from the school of thought that believes that individuals hold absolute rights over their lives. Due to this, each person in a given society holds lives his/her life based on personal choices that he/she considers best (Allik and Anu 2004, p. 46). Such choices and preferences translate into the market trends exhibited among the different groups of products and services. Individualism in the investment perspective represents the capitalist nature such as the US economy. Collectivism, on the other hand, relies on the concepts of communal and/or societal ownership of life. In a society practicing collectivism, individuals’ lifestyles draw direction s and instructions from a set of pre-set societal and communal customs as Jeannet and Hennessey (2004, p. 82) observe in their work on marketing strategies. Communist economies such as the former USSR represent some of the countries whose economic policies appreciated collectivism. For international marketing to penetrate into a new setting, understanding the different personal and communal structures and tendencies remains paramount (Reynolds and Siminitiras 2000, p. 840). Power distance Kotler (2000, p. 187) describes power distance as the quantity of authority spread out in business management through cultural practices and customs of a society. Power distance describes the culture of power sharing between the business management units and the subordinates.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on The Role of Culture in International Marketing specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such power distributions define the t ype of relationship that exists throughout the business entity’s organisational structures and culture. In business settings with lower power distance, there exists more interaction between management units and subordinate employees. Such entities engaged in highly devolved systems of duty allocation (De Mooij 2009, p. 42). Business entities with high power distance on the hand, boasts of minimal interaction between management personnel and the subordinate staff. They exhibit highly centralised system of responsibility allocation. In lower power distance set up, lower cadre employees get opportunities to dictate the kind of product and service offered as well as decisions implemented in the running of the entity. The high power set is relatively dictatorial with management holding the absolute power over the business management decisions. In the US, for example, most companies practice low power distance cultures while in Saudi Arabia and China, the business management system s are relatively dictatorial (Onkvisit and Shaw 2009, p. 97). In order to explore a new marketing strategy, business development officers need to understand the different power distance structures existing within the market in question. Understanding these culture forms a prerequisite for successful evaluation and implementation of a business marketing strategy. Masculinity versus femininity Different societies hold different opinions on gender balances and equality. In the Asian societies, for example, male domination in various development sectors continues even as the Western World appreciates affirmative actions and integrates women empowerment in job distributions and management positions. International marketing, therefore, requires an in depth understanding of the role of different gender in a given society before venturing into market penetration plans. Similarly, in the advertisement segment of marketing, understanding the conservative opinions of a given market structure o n gender issues entices the target audience, thus improving the rate of sales. Notably, an increase in sales volume holds the likelihood of high profit margins (Mullins and Christy 2011, p. 69). Uncertainty avoidance In many cultures, people avoid engaging in activities with little assurance on the probable benefits of such engagements. Directing energy to low risk activities with great prospects on benefits remains the basic driver of investors.Advertising Looking for coursework on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Equally, in the consumer world, several individual enjoy the use and association with product and services that presents the value for prices (DeWulf, Gaby, and Dawn 2001, p. 38). This culture remains rampant in the Western World and the capitalist nations. In Asian countries such as India, Pakistan, and Japan on the hand, uncertainty avoidance becomes irrelevant in the investment arena. This implies that such economic offer markets with high degree of tolerance to risks and low emphasis on the rates on return on investments. For this reason, several multinational agencies from the Western World find it easy to access, invest, and penetrate markets in Asia under minimal risks while the Asian investors find it difficult to enjoy business in the Western World. Understanding the level of uncertainty avoidance in the market helps business franchises understand the culture of market and economic systems thus improving the rate of adaptability resulting into high speed of market penetrati on (Brad 2006, p. 32). Period of orientation In some cultures, individuals focus on long-term goals at the expense of short-term objectives. Such individuals find it easy to sacrifice short-term achievements in order to pursue longer objectives in the market. In such as setting the culture becomes highly dependent on the values of persistence and perseverance. In the short-term cultures, individuals stress the need for present goals at the expense of the future objectives. High rates of obsessions with short terms goal confine business investment success (Malhotra 2008, p. 218). For example, in case a multinational entity seeks to explore a market composed of consumers with short-term orientation, difficulties arise if the probable impacts of the business franchises are exhibited in the end. Likewise, in long-term orientation market structures, business franchises with short-term goals on the impacts on consumers face difficulties in market penetrations (Keegan and Green 2013, p. 53 ). Elements of culture In order for business entities to develop strategic marketing structures, there exists a need for adequate understanding of the elements that underscore the cultural and societal setting. With globalisation and advancement in technologies, emerging trends in business marketing strategies employ the use of advanced communication systems to reach a large number of people simultaneously (Onkvisit and Shaw 2009, p. 74; Hofsede 2001, p. 69). In case business entities fail to recognise and appreciate the cultures of the target audience, the likelihood of the market strategy receiving a backlash from the market remains high. Understanding the different elements that inform human and consumer culture helps rectify this situation thus providing a base for successful market penetration. Language Language plays a vital role in communication. As a component of culture, language defines the interactive relationship between service and product providers and the consumers. D ue to this, marketing managers need to understand every language and communication culture within the target market before initiating a market penetration strategy. Both verbal and non-verbal component of communication encompass the close relationship between consumer cultures and market structures. Adequate understanding of the different language facets enables marketing managers to improve interaction levels with consumers thus developing a sense of mutual benefit between the two parties. If a marketing manager seeks to explore market within an English speaking country, it is upon the manager to develop an advert in English language lest he/she creates a communication barrier. Communication barrier impedes consumers’ understanding of the product thus reducing chances of buying (Solberg 2006, p. 7). Religion As an element of culture, religion informs consumers’ lifestyles, beliefs, values, attitudes, and ways of life. Since different market structures appreciate diffe rent religious doctrines, evidence shows that these differences appear in the consumer likes and preferences. For international marketers in the business world, understanding a country’s religious beliefs helps develop and in depth understanding of the consumer taste and preferences thus creating an ample avenue for market penetrations (Aiyeku and Nwankwo 2002, p. 29). Some religions forbid the sales and distributions of certain goods and services. This means that in case an entrepreneur launches such as product in areas, which religion prohibits its distribution and sale, there exists high chances of product failure. In the Islamic culture, for example, sale and consumption of pork and its related products is an abomination. For entrepreneurs in the pork industry therefore, penetration in the Islamic states like Saudi Arabia remains impossible. Engaging in such a venture leads to business failure. This implies that any investor who seeks entry into such market must develop a n adequate understanding of the religious orientation of the target market to reduce chances of business failure. As Aiyeku and Nwanko (2002, p. 66) argue on their analysis of international marketing strategies, marketing therefore requires a pre-entry study into the religious beliefs and doctrine within the target market to avoid backlash for the target consumers. In developing an exclusive study into the role of religion in marketing, Usunier and Lee (2005) considered religion as a cultural system with predetermined symbols and meaning. In Africa, for example, they claim that traditional religions, Christianity and Islam, form the major religions in Africa. This implies that in developing a market penetration within the African setting, understanding the confines and doctrines of these religions offers an advantage for the success of a business (Hsu 2003, p. 204). In essence, religions influence consumption behaviours and purchase patterns of individuals. For example, in the Niger ian Christian south region, sale and distribution of alcohol remains legal while in the Muslim North, alcohol consumption remains an offence with gross charges upon conviction. On the same note, religion defines the gender roles and activities within certain communities and markets. For example, in the Muslim North region of Nigeria, movements and women activities remained confined to houses as opposed to the Christian dominated region in which women enjoy freedom of movement and purchase (Babor 2010, p. 103). All these differences influence the rate of purchase of good and service. Therefore, an international marketing manager needs an in depth understanding of the religious disparities before implementing a market penetration plan in any market (Essoo and Dibb 2004, p. 709). Values and attitudes Values represent judgments that individuals make in terms of what activities, products, and services they consider vital to their lives. Despite the operating benchmark lying within the le vel of human basic needs such as food, shelter, and clothing, these judgments over things valuable to an individual’s vary from one culture to another. Taking into account Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, people with high security value several things in comparison to individuals operating within the survival level. This implies that marketing managers need to understand the different values and status of consumers in the target market before introducing their products or services (Keegan and Green 2008, p. 29). Attitudes refer to the psychological states that command people to act or behave in particular ways. Attitudes draw inspiration from individual characters in the society. Likewise, issues such as work, wealth, security, and other human needs affect individual attitudes. Western countries value individualism and personal achievements, while in most Asian and African countries, people value communal and collective stuffs (Beller and Patler 2005, p. 47). Education Edu cational and literacy level in a country defines the level concept grasp among the populations in that particular country. Areas and regions with low literacy levels require communication strategies with relatively less complicated concepts. In the areas with high literacy levels, concepts with complex structures present less problems to the populations (McNall 2011, p. 38). To avoid communication barriers, international marketing managers need to understand the education levels of the target markets in order to come up with the most viable forms of communication. Areas with low literacy levels appreciate visual advertisement structures with minimal written documents, while areas with high literacy level, document advertisements and other sophisticated imitation styles of advertisement present the most viable method of advertisement (Keegan and Green 2013, p. 182). Legal and administrative structures Different countries have different economic and business policies. Some countries b oast of liberal market structures while in other nations businesses remain restricted and under the control of government officials (Friesner 2014). Understanding these differences form the starting point for investment and market penetration. In the Western World, market liberalisation and capitalism encourages individual investment while in the Arab world, investments in the business sector remains relatively under the control of governments (Terpstra and Sarathy 2006, p. 224). Understanding local policies and regulatory frameworks governing the business sector in a country helps the marketing managers to carry out business activities smoothly without interference from the government and other stakeholders. Conclusion Culture exists in varied dimensions. Understanding the facts that underscore the culture of a given market structure enables business entities easy access and penetration. Initiating goods, products, and services in an area under which culture denounces or prohibits such goods and services is a clear market failure for a business. Despite the fact that only a bunch of business franchises carry out adequate cultural assessment of their proposed market, culture continue to define the levels of business success. Analysing and understanding cultural setups of prospective markets enable investors to evaluate the prospects expected from the investments, thus improving the chances of business success. References Aiyeku, J. K., and Nwankwo, S 2002, Dynamics of Marketing in African Nations, Greenwood Publishing Group, Portsmouth. Allik, J., and Anu R 2004, ‘Individualism–Collectivism and Social Capital’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 35 no. 1, pp. 29–49. Babor, T. 2010, Alcohol No Ordinary Commodity, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Beller, K., and Patler, L 2005, The consistent consumer: Predicting future behavior through lasting values, Dearborn Trade Pub., Chicago, IL. Brad, K 2006, International Marketing, Cen gage Learning, London. Byrd, M., and Megginson, L 2013, Small business management: An entrepreneur’s guidebook, McGraw-Hill, New York. Cateora, P. R., and Graham, J. L 2007, International marketing, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Boston, MA. Czinkota, M., and Ronkainen, I 2007, International marketing, Thomson/South-Western, Mason, Ohio. De Mooij, M 2009, Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. DeWulf, K, Gaby O.S., and Dawn, I 2001, ‘Investments in Consumer Relationships: A Cross-Country and Cross-Industry Exploration’, Journal of Marketing, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 33–50. Essoo, N., and Dibb, S 2004, ‘Religious influences on shopping behaviour: an exploratory study’, Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 20, no.8, pp. 683-712. Friesner, T 2014, International marketing and culture, Hofsede, G 2001, Culture’s Consequences, Sage, Tho usand Oaks, CA. Hsu, H 2003, National culture and clothing values: A cross-national study of Taiwan and United States consumers, Prentice House, New York. Jeannet, J. P., and Hennessey, H. D 2004, Cases in global marketing strategies, Houghton Mifflin, Boston. Keegan, W. J., and Green, M. C 2008, Global marketing, Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Keegan, W. J. and Green, M. C 2013, Global Marketing (7th ed.), Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J. Kotler, P 2000, Marketing management, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J. Malhotra, N 2008, Review of marketing research, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y. McNall, S 2011, The business of sustainability: Trends, policies, practices, and stories of success, Praeger Publisher, Santa Barbara, California. Mullins, L. J. and Christy, G 2011, Essentials of Organisational Behaviour, FT Prentice Hall, Harlow, England. Onkvisit, S., and Shaw, J 2009, International Marketing: Strategy and Theory, Routledge Publishers, London. Reyn olds, N., and Siminitiras, A 2000, ‘Towards an Understanding of the Role of Cross-Cultural Equivalence in International Personal Selling’, Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 829-851. Solberg, C 2006, Relationship between exporters and their foreign sales and marketing intermediaries, Elsevier JAI, Amsterdam. Terpstra, V., and Sarathy, R 2006, International Marketing, Northcoast Publishers, Garfield Heights, OH. Usunier, J. C., and Lee, J 2005, Marketing across cultures, Financial Times/Prentice Hall, Harlow, England. This coursework on The Role of Culture in International Marketing was written and submitted by user Dust to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.